The clinical course of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma in survivors of Hodgkin disease.
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to document the natural history of second lung carcinomas, common second tumors that arise in survivors of Hodgkin disease (HD). METHODS: The data bases of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were searched to retrieve those patients who were listed with a diagnosis of both lung carcinoma and HD. Information was extracted regarding their HD (including age at diagnosis and treatment received) and their lung carcinoma (including smoking history, latency from HD, histology, disease stage, treatment received, treatment response, and survival). RESULTS: Twenty-one lung carcinomas were diagnosed in 19 patients, with a median latency of 13 years from the time of diagnosis of HD. Only five patients underwent complete resection, and four patients were alive and disease free at the last follow-up. In contrast, the median survival of 14 patients with unresectable disease was 3 months. No major objective responses were documented after chemotherapy. Poor performance status and prior thoracic radiotherapy limited treatment in patients with advanced disease. All patients had either received radiotherapy to the chest for HD or had a history of smoking; 74% of patients had both risk factors for the development of lung carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a history of HD, survival after the development of lung carcinoma is poor. Because surgical resection can lead to long-term survival, early detection is crucial. HD survivors, especially those with a history of smoking, should undergo careful surveillance for second primary lung carcinomas and other diseases. Patients who are diagnosed with HD should abstain from smoking. Physicians should assess specifically the smoking status of all HD patients and prescribe a smoking cessation program.