Characterization of radioiodinated TISCH: a high-affinity and selective ligand for mapping CNS D1 dopamine receptor.
In developing CNS D1 dopamine receptor-imaging agents with improved specificity and longer brain retention, an iodinated D1 ligand was synthesized. In vitro and in vivo radiolabeling studies of a new iodinated benzazepine, TISCH [7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(3'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3- benzazepine], an analog of SCH 23390 (7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepin e), were investigated. After an intravenous injection, the R(+) isomer of TISCH showed high brain uptake in rats (2.20 and 0.57% dose per whole brain at 2 and 60 min, respectively). The striatum/cerebellum ratio increased progressively with time (12 at 60 min). Ex vivo autoradiography of rat brain sections, after intravenous injection of R(+)-[125I]TISCH, displayed the highest uptake in striatum and substantia nigra, regions known to have a high concentration of D1 receptors, whereas the S(-) isomer displayed no specific uptake. Furthermore, the specific uptake can be blocked by pretreatment with SCH 23390. In vitro binding studies using the rat striatum tissue preparation showed high specific and low nonspecific bindings (KD = 0.21 +/- 0.03 nM). The rank order of potency exhibiting high specificity to the D1 receptor was SCH 23390 greater than (+/-)-TISCH greater than (+)-butaclamol = (+/-)-FISCH [7-chloro-8-hydroxy-1-(4'-iodophenyl)-3-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-3-benzazepine] much greater than WB4101 = spiperone greater than dopamine, serotonin, (+/-)-propranolol, and naloxone. Imaging studies in a monkey with the resolved isomer, R(+)-[123I]TISCH, demonstrated a high uptake in the basal ganglia and prolonged retention. The preliminary data suggest that R(+)-TISCH is selective for the CNS D1 receptor and is potentially useful for in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies. When labeled with iodine-123, it may be suitable for noninvasive imaging in humans.