Dose-dependent effect of radiation on angiogenic and angiostatic CXC chemokine expression in human endothelial cells.
Blood vessel growth is regulated by angiogenic and angiostatic CXC chemokines, and radiation is a vasculogenic stimulus. We investigated the effect of radiation on endothelial cell chemokine signaling, receptor expression, and migration and apoptosis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were exposed to a single fraction of 0, 5, or 20 Gy of ionizing radiation (IR). All vasculogenic chemokines (CXCL1-3/5-8) increased 3-13-fold after 5 or 20 Gy IR. 20 Gy induced a marked increase (1.6-4-fold) in angiostatic CXC chemokines. CXCR4 expression increased 3.5 and 7-fold at 48 h after 5 and 20 Gy, respectively. Bone marrow progenitor cell chemotaxis was augmented by conditioned media from cells treated with 5 Gy IR. Whereas 5 Gy markedly decreased intrinsic cell apoptosis (0 Gy=16%+/-3.6 vs. 5 Gy=4.5%+/-0.3), 20 Gy increased it (21.4%+/-1.2); a reflection of pro-survival angiogenic chemokine expression. Radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in pro-angiogenic CXC chemokines and CXCR4. In contrast, angiostatic chemokines and apoptosis were induced at higher (20 Gy) radiation doses. Cell migration improved significantly following 5 Gy, but not 20 Gy IR. Collectively, these data suggest that lower doses of IR induce an angiogenic cascade while higher doses produce an angiostatic profile.