Human papillomavirus vaccination in males: the state of the science.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an extremely prevalent sexually transmitted infection that is typically acquired soon after onset of sexual activity. The burden of HPV-related malignant and nonmalignant disease is high in men and women. High-risk or oncogenic types of HPV cause cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancer in women. These types have also been shown to cause penile cancer in men and a substantial proportion of oropharyngeal and anal malignancy in men and women. Low-risk types of HPV cause anogenital warts. Prevention of penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancers and anogenital warts represents potential benefits of the HPV vaccine in men. This review focuses on HPV disease in men, existing data on HPV vaccination in men, and various factors associated with the decision to vaccinate boys and young men, as well as the timing of vaccination.