CCR5 antagonism in HIV infection: current concepts and future opportunities.
CCR5 antagonists inhibit HIV-1 entry by blocking the interaction of HIV-1 with the CCR5 cellular receptor. In patients with established HIV-1 infection, some viral strains use an alternative coreceptor for HIV-1 entry, CXCR4; CCR5 antagonists are not effective in patients harboring these viral strains. Coreceptor tropism testing of viral strains in an individual patient is necessary prior to treating with a CCR5 antagonist. There is one CCR5 antagonist, maraviroc, that is FDA-approved for treatment of HIV-1 infection. This drug is used most commonly for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in patients who have failed other antiretroviral regimens. In addition to virologic effects, CCR5 antagonists are under investigation for immune-modulating effects and for HIV-1 prevention. Ongoing research will further elucidate the role of CCR5 antagonists in combating HIV disease.