Human papillomavirus vaccines: where do they fit in HIV-infected individuals?
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological agent for cervical cancer and a large majority of anal cancers worldwide. In 2006 two preventive vaccines against the HPV were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and have since been approved in over 100 countries. HIV-infected populations are at an increased risk for HPV-related cancers. None of the efficacy trials for these vaccines included HIV-infected populations. However, studies in HIV-infected children and adult men show that the vaccine is safe and highly immunogenic. Studies evaluating the vaccine in HIV-infected women are in progress. Based on these studies, the American Council on Immunization Practices recommends HPV vaccination for all HIV-infected children and young adults up to age 26 years. HPV vaccine policies in resource-limited countries, many of which have a high prevalence of HIV infection, are still being developed. Future studies should examine the role of HPV vaccination for older HIV-infected adults who likely have ongoing HPV infection.