High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-1-infected men screening for a multicenter clinical trial of a human papillomavirus vaccine.
PURPOSE: High-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN) is the precursor lesion to invasive anal cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination holds great promise for preventing anal cancer. METHODS: We examined 235 HIV-1-infected men screening for participation in a multisite clinical trial of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine. All participants had anal swabs obtained for HPV testing and cytology and high-resolution anoscopy with biopsies of visible lesions to assess for HGAIN. RESULTS: HPV types 16 and 18 were detected in 23% and 10%, respectively; abnormal anal cytology was found in 56% and HGAIN in 30%. HGAIN prevalence was significantly higher in those with HPV16 detection compared to those without (38% vs 17%; P = .01). Use of antiretroviral therapy and nadir and current CD4+ cell count were not associated with abnormal anal cytology or HGAIN. CONCLUSION: HGAIN is highly prevalent in HIV-infected men. Further studies are needed on treatment and prevention of HGAIN.