Lipid levels and changes in body fat distribution in treatment-naive, HIV-1-Infected adults treated with rilpivirine or Efavirenz for 96 weeks in the ECHO and THRIVE trials.
BACKGROUND: Pooled ECHO/THRIVE lipid and body fat data are presented from the ECHO (Efficacy Comparison in Treatment-Naïve, HIV-Infected Subjects of TMC278 and Efavirenz) and THRIVE (TMC278 Against HIV, in a Once-Daily Regimen Versus Efavirenz) trials. METHODS: We assessed the 96-week effects on lipids, adverse events (AEs), and body fat distribution (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) of rilpivirine (RPV) and EFV plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs) in treatment-naive adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). RESULTS: Rilpivirine produced minimal changes in total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides. Compared with RPV, EFV significantly (P < .001) increased lipid levels. Decreases in the TC/HDL-C ratio were similar with RPV and EFV. Background N[t]RTI affected RPV-induced lipid changes; all levels increased with zidovudine/lamivudine (3TC) and abacavir/3TC (except triglycerides, which were unchanged). With emtricitabine/tenofovir, levels of HDL-C were increased, TC and LDL-C were unchanged, and triglycerides were decreased. With EFV, lipid levels increased in each N[t]RTI subgroup (except triglycerides were unchanged with abacavir/3TC). Fewer (P < .001) RPV-treated patients than EFV-treated patients had TC, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels above National Cholesterol Education Program cutoffs. More RPV- than EFV-treated patients had HDL-C values below these cutoffs (P = .02). Dyslipidemia AEs were less common with RPV than with EFV. Similar proportions of patients had a ≥10% decrease in limb fat (16% with RPV and 17% with EFV). Limb fat was significantly (P < .001) increased to a similar extent (by 12% with RPV and 11% with EFV). At week 96, patients receiving zidovudine/3TC had lost limb fat, and those receiving emtricitabine/tenofovir had gained it. CONCLUSIONS: Over the course of 96 weeks, RPV-based therapy was associated with lower increases in lipid parameters and fewer dyslipidemia AEs than EFV-based treatment. Body fat distribution changes were similar between treatments. The N[t]RTI regimen affected lipid and body fat distribution changes.