Omental angiogenic lipid fraction and bone repair. An experimental study in the rat.
A lipid material extracted from the omentum has previously been shown to contain a potent angiogenetic activator (20), capable of creating intense vasoproliferation in traumatized tissues (19). This study was undertaken to analyze the efficacy of local administration of this omental lipid fraction on osseous vascularization and bone repair. An osteoperiosteal segmental femoral defect in the rat was replaced by a demineralized allogenic bone graft exposed to continuous local delivery of omental lipid via an implanted miniosmotic pump. Saline solution delivered in the same way served as a control. Neovascularization and bone formation in the transplant were quantitatively evaluated by means of dynamic radioisotopic bone imaging, radiographic photodensitometry, microangiography, and biomechanical testing. Compared with the control group, the omental lipid angiogenic fraction-treated specimens showed an 80% overall increase (p less than 0.001) in bone density as well as a twofold increase (p less than 0.001) in regional blood perfusion, maximal at 2 weeks following surgery. At 12 weeks, biomechanical testing demonstrated significantly higher union rate (p less than 0.05) and strength (p less than 0.01) in the treated specimens as compared with the controls. These data demonstrate that the omental lipid fraction factor has potent angiogenic properties that enhance bone blood perfusion and bone regeneration.