Human papillomavirus-related malignancies in HIV infection: anal and oropharyngeal cancers.
Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, including anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer, occur more frequently in individuals living with HIV infection than in the general population. Strategies for prevention among individuals with HIV infection include HPV vaccination, anal cancer screening programs, and early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). HPV vaccination is not yet optimally used; a stronger and more persistent effort is needed to increase vaccination rates. Although anal cancer screening is not recommended by all authorities, there is a least some evidence that screening and treatment of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions may prevent progression to cancer. However, more definitive evidence is needed. Early initiation of ART reduces the risk of infection-related cancers, with some evidence of benefit in preventing HPV-associated cancer in individuals with HIV infection. This article summarizes a presentation by Timothy J. Wilkin, MD, MPH, at the IAS-USA continuing education program held in Los Angeles, California in April 2018.