Hematogenous extramedullary relapse in multiple myeloma - a multicenter retrospective study in 127 patients. Academic Article uri icon



  • The current study assesses the characteristics and outcomes of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, treated with novel agents for hematogenous extramedullary (HEMM) relapse. Consecutive patients diagnosed with HEMM between 2010-2018 were included. Patients' characteristics at diagnosis and at HEMM presentation, response to treatment, survival and factors predicting survival were recorded and analyzed. A group of 127 patients, all diagnosed with HEMM by imaging (87.3%) and/or biopsy (79%), were included. Of those, 44% were initially diagnosed with ISS3, 57% presented with plasmacytomas, and 30% had high-risk cytogenetics. Median time to HEMM was 32 months. In multivariate analysis, ISS3 and bone plasmacytoma predicted shorter time to HEMM (P = .005 and P = .008, respectively). Upfront autograft was associated with longer time to HEMM (P = .002). At HEMM, 32% of patients had no BM plasmacytosis, 20% had non-secretory disease and 43% had light-chain disease. Multiple HEMM sites were reported in 52% of patients, mostly involving soft tissue, skin (29%), and pleura/lung (25%). First treatment for HEMM included proteasome inhibitors (50%), immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) (39%), monoclonal antibodies (10%), and chemotherapy (53%). Overall response rate (ORR) was 57%. IMiDs were associated with higher ORR (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.02-4.7, P = .04). Median survival from HEMM was 6 months (CI 95% 4.8-7.2). Failure to achieve ≥VGPR was the only significant factor for worse OS in multivariate analyses (HR = 9.87, CI 95% 2.35 - 39, P = .001). In conclusion, HEMM occurs within 3 years of initial myeloma diagnosis and is associated with dismal outcome. The IMiDs might provide a higher response rate, and achievement of ≥VGPR predicts longer survival.

publication date

  • August 13, 2019



  • Bone Neoplasms
  • Lung
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Neoplastic Cells, Circulating
  • Plasmacytoma
  • Pleura
  • Salvage Therapy
  • Skin


Scopus Document Identifier

  • 85070702038

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/ajh.25579

PubMed ID

  • 31334859

Additional Document Info


  • 94


  • 10