Initial clinical trial of a selective retinoid X receptor ligand, LGD1069.
PURPOSE: The retinoid response is mediated by nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid "X" receptors (RXRs). All-trans retinoic acid (RA) binds only RARs, while 9-cis RA is an agonist for both RARs and RXRs. Recently, LGD1069 was identified as a highly selective RXR agonist with low affinity for RARs. We undertook a dose-ranging study to examine the safety, clinical tolerance, and pharmacokinetics of LGD1069 in patients with advanced cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients received. LGD1069 administered orally once daily at doses that ranged from 5 to 500 mg/m2 for 1 to 41 weeks. Treatment proceeded from a starting dose of 5 mg/m2. Pharmacokinetic sampling was performed on selected patients on days 1, 15, and 29. RESULTS: Reversible, asymptomatic increases in liver biochemical tests were the most common dose-limiting adverse effect. Less prominent reactions included leukopenia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercalcemia. Characteristic retinoid toxicities, such as cheilitis, headache, and myalgias/arthralgias, were mild or absent. Two patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma experienced major antitumor responses. Pharmacokinetic studies obtained in 27 patients at eight dose levels showed that the day 1 area under the plasma concentration-times-time curves (AUCs) were proportional to dose. At all doses studied, the day 1 AUCs were similar to those on days 15 and 29, indicating a lack of induced metabolism. CONCLUSION: LGD1069 is a unique compound that exploits a newly identified pathway of retinoid receptor biology that may be relevant to tumor-cell proliferation and apoptosis. Further investigation of this drug is warranted. Based on the results of this study, a dose of 300 mg/m2 is recommended for single-agent trials.