Phase 1 trial of everolimus and gefitinib in patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer.
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway restores gefitinib sensitivity in resistant cancer cell lines. A phase 1 study was conducted of the combination of everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, and gefitinib to determine a daily dose of everolimus with gefitinib in patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Oral everolimus and gefitinib were both administered daily to patients with progressive NSCLC. Patients were enrolled in 3-patient cohorts at everolimus dose levels of 5 and 10 mg daily. All patients received gefitinib 250 mg daily. RESULTS: Ten patients were enrolled. The maximum tolerated dose of everolimus was 5 mg when administered daily with gefitinib 250 mg. Two patients who were treated at the 10 mg dose level of everolimus experienced dose-limiting toxicity, including grade 5 hypotension and grade 3 stomatitis. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated no consistent, significant interaction on the t(max), C(max), and AUC(0-8h) of either agent. Two partial radiographic responses were identified among the 8 response-evaluable patients. CONCLUSIONS: For further study, everolimus at a dose of 5 mg daily in combination with daily gefitinib 250 mg is recommended. The 2 radiographic responses identified are encouraging. A phase 2 trial in patients with NSCLC is under way.