Coexistence of PIK3CA and other oncogene mutations in lung adenocarcinoma-rationale for comprehensive mutation profiling.
Phosphoinositide-3-kinase catalytic alpha polypeptide (PIK3CA) encodes the p110α subunit of the mitogenic signaling protein phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PIK3CA mutations in the helical binding domain and the catalytic subunit of the protein have been associated with tumorigenesis and treatment resistance in various malignancies. Characteristics of patients with PIK3CA-mutant lung adenocarcinomas have not been reported. We examined epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), Kirsten rate sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), PIK3CA, v-akt murine thymoma vial oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1), v-ras neuroblastoma viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung to identify driver mutations. Clinical data were obtained from the medical records of individuals with mutations in PIK3CA. Twenty-three of 1,125 (2%, 95% CI: 1-3) patients had a mutation in PIK3CA, 12 in exon 9 (10 E545K and 2 E542K), and 11 in exon 20 (3 H1047L and 8 H1047R). The patients (57% women) had a median age of 66 at diagnosis (range: 34-78). Eight patients (35%) were never smokers. Sixteen of 23 (70%, 95% CI: 49-86) had coexisting mutations in other oncogenes-10 KRAS, 1 MEK1, 1 BRAF, 1 ALK rearrangement, and 3 EGFR exon 19 deletions. We conclude that PIK3CA mutations occur in lung adenocarcinomas, usually concurrently with EGFR, KRAS, and ALK. The impact of PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of targeted therapies such as erlotinib and crizotinib is unknown. Given the high frequency of overlapping mutations, comprehensive genotyping should be carried out on tumor specimens from patients enrolling in clinical trials of PI3K and other targeted therapies.