D2Refine: A Platform for Clinical Research Study Data Element Harmonization and Standardization.
In this paper, we present a platform known as D2Refine for facilitating clinical research study data element harmonization and standardization. D2Refine is developed on top of OpenRefine (formerly Google Refine) and leverages simple interface and extensible architecture of OpenRefine. D2Refine empowers the tabular representation of clinical research study data element definitions by allowing it to be easily organized and standardized using reconciliation services. D2Refine builds on valuable built-in data transformation features of OpenRefine to bring source data sets to a finer state quickly. We implemented the reconciliation services and search capabilities based on the standard Common Terminology Services 2 (CTS2) and the serialization of clinical research study data element definitions into standard representation using clinical information modeling technology for semantic interoperability. We demonstrate that D2Refine is a useful and promising platform that would help address the emergent needs for clinical research study data element harmonization and standardization.