Trial watch: Immune checkpoint blockers for cancer therapy.
Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are literally revolutionizing the clinical management of an ever more diversified panel of oncological indications. Although considerable attention persists around the inhibition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1) signaling, several other co-inhibitory T-cell receptors are being evaluated as potential targets for the development of novel ICBs. Moreover, substantial efforts are being devoted to the identification of biomarkers that reliably predict the likelihood of each patient to obtain clinical benefits from ICBs in the absence of severe toxicity. Tailoring the delivery of specific ICBs or combinations thereof to selected patient populations in the context of precision medicine programs constitutes indeed a major objective of the future of ICB-based immunotherapy. Here, we discuss recent preclinical and clinical advances on the development of ICBs for oncological indications.