Ascertaining Depression Severity by Extracting Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) Scores from Clinical Notes.
The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a validated instrument for assessing depression severity. While some electronic health record (EHR) systems capture PHQ-9 scores in a structured format, unstructured clinical notes remain the only source in many settings, which presents data retrieval challenges for research and clinical decision support. To address this gap, we extended the open-source Leo natural language processing (NLP) platform to extract PHQ-9 scores from clinical notes and evaluated performance using EHR data for n=123,703 patients who were prescribed antidepressants. Compared to a reference standard, the NLP method exhibited high accuracy (97%), sensitivity (98%), precision (97%), and F-score (97%). Furthermore, of patients with PHQ-9 scores identified by the NLP method, 31% (n=498) had at least one PHQ-9 score clinically indicative of major depressive disorder (MDD), but lacked a structured ICD-9/10 diagnosis code for MDD. This NLP technique may facilitate accurate identification and stratification of patients with depression.