DROSHA-Dependent miRNA and AIM2 Inflammasome Activation in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disease. Chronic lung inflammation is linked to the pathogenesis of IPF. DROSHA, a class 2 ribonuclease III enzyme, has an important role in the biogenesis of microRNA (miRNA). The function of miRNAs has been identified in the regulation of the target gene or protein related to inflammatory responses via degradation of mRNA or inhibition of translation. The absent-in-melanoma-2 (AIM2) inflammasome is critical for inflammatory responses against cytosolic double stranded DNA (dsDNA) from pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and self-DNA from danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The AIM2 inflammasome senses double strand DNA (dsDNA) and interacts with the adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), which recruits pro-caspase-1 and regulates the maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. A recent study showed that inflammasome activation contributes to lung inflammation and fibrogenesis during IPF. In the current review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the DROSHA-miRNA-AIM2 inflammasome axis in the pathogenesis of IPF.