Effect of Osimertinib and Bevacizumab on Progression-Free Survival for Patients With Metastatic EGFR-Mutant Lung Cancers: A Phase 1/2 Single-Group Open-Label Trial.
Importance: The combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab as initial treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR [OMIM 131550])-mutant lung cancers improves progression-free survival (PFS) compared with erlotinib alone. Because osimertinib prolongs PFS compared with erlotinib, this trial was designed to study the combination of osimertinib and bevacizumab as first-line treatment. Objectives: To determine the safety and tolerability of osimertinib and bevacizumab combination treatment and assess the 12-month PFS of the combination in patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers. Design, Setting, and Particiants: From August 15, 2016, to May 15, 2018, 49 patients with metastatic EGFR-mutant lung cancers were enrolled in this interventional clinical trial, conducted at a single academic cancer center. In the phase 1 portion of the study, a standard 3 + 3 dose de-escalation design was used to determine the maximum tolerated dose of osimertinib and bevacizumab. In the phase 2 portion of the study, patients were treated at the maximum tolerated dose defined in the phase 1 portion. Statistical analysis was performed from August 1 to October 1, 2019. Interventions: All patients received osimertinib, 80 mg daily, and bevacizumab, 15 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary objective of the phase 2 portion of the study was to determine the number of patients receiving the combination of osimertinib and bevacizumab who were progression free at 12 months. Secondary end points included overall response rate, median PFS, overall survival, and definition of the toxic effects of the combination treatment. Results: Among the 49 patients in the study (34 women; median age, 60 years [range, 36-83 years]), PFS at 12 months was 76% (95% CI, 65%-90%). The overall response rate was 80% (95% CI, 67%-91%), and median PFS was 19 months (95% CI, 15-24 months). Of the 6 patients with measurable central nervous system disease, all had a partial or complete central nervous system response. Persistent detection of EGFR-mutant circulating tumor (ct)DNA at 6 weeks was associated with shorter median PFS (clearance at 6 weeks, 16.2 months [95% CI, 13 months to not reached]; and no clearance at 6 weeks, 9.8 months [95% CI, 4 months to not reached]; P = .04) and median overall survival (clearance at 6 weeks, not reached; and no clearance at 6 weeks, 10.1 months [95% CI, 6 months to not reached]; P = .002). Identified mechanisms of resistance included squamous cell transformation (n = 2) pleomorphic transformation (n = 1), and acquired EGFR L718Q (n = 1) and C797S (n = 1) mutations. Conclusions and Relevance: The combination of osimertinib and bevacizumab met the study's prespecified effectiveness end point. Persistent EGFR-mutant circulating tumor DNA at 6 weeks was associated with early progression and shorter survival. A randomized phase 3 study comparing osimertinib and bevacizumab with osimertinib alone is planned. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02803203.